100 Years Ago Today – Patriotic Day – September 2, 1918: How Labor Day Ushered in Change for a Country at War

By Sherri Goudy

Labor Day: a national holiday set in observance of workers contributions to the strength, prosperity and well-being of our country.  Though today we celebrate this holiday with barbecues and pool parties for the official close of summer, this holiday has a violent past for workers’ rights. First celebrated in New York in 1882, it took 12 years for the US government to officially make it a national holiday.

By 1918, Labor Day had been accepted in all the states for some time.  Though the citizens of Clark County had been used to this 3-day weekend for some time, the first Monday in September 1918 was different.  The United States had been involved in the war for 17 months, and lives had been changed, some lost forever. But now, the German army was beginning to retreat, and the end of the war was near.  Changes in the social and political climate were happening as well, as women fought for the right to vote and temperance became a big issue for the nearing election.

The Springfield Daily News promoted this Labor Day as Patriotic Day and invited all to “Participate in the Greatest Day in the History of Springfield and Clark County.”

SDN Aug 18, 1918 2nd pg 8

The celebration included games, sports, and other recreational activities.  The day kicked off with a Patriotic Parade, to be led by the women of the American Red Cross.  They wore white dresses and veils.  Other participants included the Patriotic League and mothers of soldiers, who were asked to bring service flags.

SDN Aug 31, 1918 pg 2

The parade included floats, of which the most popular was the “Liberty Loan Float” with Joan of Arc “calling on the people of Springfield and Clark County to get ready for the fourth Liberty Loan bond issue.”

SDN Sept 3, 1918 pg 3

SDN Sept 3, 1918 pg 6

Patriotic Day in Springfield was a day of patriotism and propaganda in support of the US in the War.  Speeches, visual representations of victorious leaders, and togetherness for the cause was a way for Clark County and the rest of the nation to build and showcase patriotism. The United States appealed to its people by encouraging patriotic obligation, from the soldier on the field to the men, women, and children at home.

In the months to follow, great changes were in store for the United States.  The war would come to an end, but not before influenza took its toll and caused more deaths than the battlefield.  Temperance would go to the ballot and win.  And for women, the fight for equality and the right to vote would take center stage.  But for now, on this Labor Day 100 years ago, the country and citizens of Clark County came together for a day of rest and celebration.

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Communication During the Great War: The Critical Role of Letters and Newspapers

By Sherri Goudy

“’My dear son, it’s almost June
I hope this letter catches up to you, and finds you well
It’s been dry, but they’re calling for rain
And every thing’s the same old same in Johnsonville
Your stubborn old daddy, ain’t said too much
But I’m sure you know, he sends his love’ and she goes on
In a letter from home
I hold it up and show my buddies like
We ain’t scared and our boots ain’t muddy, and they all laugh
Like there’s something funny about the way I talk
When I say, ‘Mama sends her best y’all’
I fold it up and put it in my shirt
Pick up my gun and get back to work
And it keeps me driving me on
Waiting on letters from home”        …Letters from Home, by John Michael Montgomery

It is evident throughout history, that in times of war and separation, communication between families and soldiers was the most important way of boosting morale and keeping hope alive.  Letters to soldiers showed that families were thinking of them and loved them, and it provided them motivation to press on despite horrible conditions and constant death.  For families, a letter was a reassurance that their loved one was still alive and gave them an uncensored look into what war was really like. These essential communications were often memorized and handled frequently.  Today they offer us a valuable historical record about what life was like for both the soldier and the Homefront.

Private Robert E. Bryant wrote letters to his cousin Geneva (Jackie) Fath and his Aunt Grace Quinlan of Springfield throughout his service during WWI.

Photo 1 Envelope addressed to Geneva April 8, 1918

Bryant, born in 1899, enlisted in the US Army Artillery Corps and began his service in 1917 at the age of 18. By January 1918, he was serving in the Coast Artillery Corps at Fort Constitution, in New Hampshire and in March he was part of the Coast Defense at Fort Stark in Portsmouth. On July 19, 1918, he went to England then France to serve in the American Expeditionary Forces.  After the war, he was promoted to Corporal, and worked in the Education and Reaction Department at Camp Zachery Taylor in Kentucky.

In his letters to his cousin and aunt, which span from June 1917 through August 1920, you can see his evolution and growth as a result of being at war.  His first letters home were playful, and he talked about his training to become a marksman and sharpshooter and in this excerpt from December 1917 he says,

“What would you think of me as an ambulance driver going to France before long? I am afraid that is what will happen if we don’t get some action of some kind soon. A friend of mine that works for me (and myself) by the name of Frank L. Core, is going to France before very long. We had our names sent to Washington D.C. and we’re waiting anxiously for an answer.”

Photo 2 Letter Bryant to Geneva Dec 1917

Photo 3 Letter Bryant to Geneva Dec 1917

Photo 4 Letter Bryant to Geneva Dec 1917

Photo 5 Letter Bryant to Geneva Dev 1917

Photo 6 Letter Bryant to Geneva Dec 1917

Photo 7 Letter Bryant to Geneva Dec 1917

In early 1918, he still is waiting to hear about going to France and mentions that the newspapers say there will be peace soon.  He also mentions the “shenanigans” that happen in the barracks between himself and his buddies.

 “From what the paper says tonight we will have peace in a short time. (I hope the paper tells the truth.) I have not heard anymore about going to France. Everything is as quiet as a mouse around here except at night after the lights goes out, and then—we start throwing shoes and anything else that is throwable or grabable. Oh yes, sometimes we get soaked on the “Dome” about proper. All we can hear when the lights goes out is: Zipp! Boom! Buch! Cut it—Zipp! Out. Someone threw a shoe at me last night (It was more like a steam-boat than a shoe) and as my bed is near a window I saw the shoe heading straight for my “Bean” and I ducked just in time. The shoe went through the window and as it was snowing, the snow came through on my bed, so I had to keep my head under the blankets for the rest of the night. Such—is the army life.” 

Photo 8 Letter Bryant to Geneva Jan 1918

Photo 9 Letter Bryant to Geneva Jan 1918

Photo 10 Letter Bryant to Gevena Jan 1918

Photo 11 Letter Bryant to Geneva Jan 1918

Photo 12 Letter Bryant to Geneva Jan 1918

Photo 13 Letter Bryant to Geneva Jan 1918

Just a few months later, Bryant learned he would be going to France.  In this letter, dated March 7, 1918, he wrote to his aunt asking for financial information, so he could make out his will.

Photo 14 Letter Bryant to Aunt March 1918

Photo 15 Letter Bryant to Aunt March 1918

Photo 16 Letter Bryant to Aunt March 1918

In his final letter for quite some time, he apologizes for not writing sooner, but says he had been putting it off because he knew he would be going to France.  Though he didn’t want to say goodbye, possibly forever, he closes with this line,

“Give my love to Aunt Grace and tell her goodbye for me and I will say goodbye to you little girl in case I don’t get to see or write to you again.”

Though letters were the preferred method for receiving news about their loved ones, the people of Clark County, just as was the case across the nation and world, relied heavily on newspapers for the latest information about the conflict.  Acting as the Facebook or Twitter of the day, the newspaper was the source for daily updates about what was going on “over there.”  Letters could take weeks even months to reach their intended recipient, so the newspaper provided “immediate” information for anxious communities.  Local newspapers published the names of men that entered the military, printed letters home from servicemen overseas, reported casualty information, and informed readers of the efforts to support the war on the home front. The newspapers from WWI provide a detailed record of how the war was viewed from local, national, and international perspectives, and how it affected the daily lives of Americans.

In Springfield, the newspaper published daily a “Local Men” section, which provided information about the men serving during WWI.  Private Robert E Bryant was one of the men featured on April 21, 1918.

Photo 17 SDN April 21 1918 pg 8 - Jun 8 2018 - 10-54 AM - p1 (002)

Photo 18 SDN April 21 1918 pg 8 - Jun 8 2018 - 10-56 AM - p1 (002)

Bryant’s last letter to his cousin was written August 9, 1920.  In it he tells about his new job and his future and begs for the latest news (probably gossip) from Springfield.  His playful language with his cousin is consistent throughout his letters, and they are an excellent source for learning one soldier’s experience during and after war.

Photo 17 Last Letter Bryant to Geneva

Geneva received letters from several other soldiers which help paint an even more colorful picture about war and writing letters to someone you’ve never met (and think you’re in love with).

To see this entire collection and to learn more, please come see our exhibit August 2, 2018 at the Ohio State Fair, the Cardinal Building from 9am -9pm.   

Clark County in the Great War: How Propaganda Fueled Anti-German Hysteria in WWI

By Sherri Goudy

The Great War was one of the most damaging conflicts in history.  It was the bloodiest and most deadly.  New weapons were engineered, and old models were improved to maim and kill on a scale not seen before.  But another weapon, and old and trusted powerful instrument of destruction, was utilized in a way to pit not just armies, but entire nations against one another during WWI.

Propaganda is a formidable weapon of war. It is used to promote patriotism and convince populations that their cause is just. It strengthens nativism, nationalism, and an “us vs them” mentality.  However, it can be destructive as easily as it rallies.  It can be more powerful than any other weapon because it is used to dehumanize.  Using false ideas and images, propaganda is used to create hatred towards the enemy.  And it works, often with lasting effects.

In WWI, the US was allied with European countries against Germany. Part of the war effort was to promote patriotism and ensure that every American citizen was invested in the war.  People were bombarded daily with newspaper articles, political cartoons, and posters telling them what was happening overseas.  Headlines read: “Soldiers killed in action with the Germans” and “German U-boat shells American Ship.”  Increasingly, Anti-German sentiments began to develop across the nation. This resulted in book bans, changing street names from German sounding to English, removing German language classes from the education system, and falsely accusing German-Americans of treason.  Even popular foods with German names were changed, some of which have remained today – such as “frankfurter” to “hot dog.”

In Ohio, where there was a huge German-American population, and anti-German sentiment was a serious problem.  In Cincinnati, the attacks on German culture are well documented.  13 street names and businesses with German names were also changed.  The German newspaper there was raided.  And the conductor of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, Ernst Kunwald, was unjustly taken into custody under the Alien Enemies Act and later deported.  This was not exclusive, and any city in Ohio with German populations reacted with similar anti-German hysteria.

The Springfield Daily News was filled with anti-German propaganda.  Movies advertisements such as this one fed into the hysteria that Germans were not just the enemy, they were a curse.

Photo 1SDN Feb 24 1918 pg 9 - Jun 8 2018 - 10-15 AM - p1 (002)

Political cartoons also fueled the sentiments that Germans were not civilized.

Photo 2 PC Unclean

Fear about the German agenda also plagued the US during the war.  The headline at the top of the paper read “Huns plan to Germanize America unearthed.”  The article which accompanies the headline is about rifles being imported to the US by Germany to be used by Germans if they won the war.

Photo 3 SDN May 14 1918 front - Jun 8 2018 - 10-35 AM - p1 (002)

The Ohio Americanization Committee was originally formed to promote values of being American and to teach English to immigrants wishing to become US citizens.  Formed by Governor James Cox, it had good intentions at the start.  However, this group quickly adopted anti-German sentiments, and began to censor German books.  They suggested banning “pro” German books from libraries and schools.

By April 1918, just a year after the US had entered the war, the anti-German sentiment had spread to the schools in Springfield.  All German classes had been eliminated from the curriculum.  The newspaper published this image drawn by one of the students in the city.  The headline read “High School Boy is Talented Cartoonist.” The image depicts the exile of German books from the school, with a boot kicking them out, and the children and teachers watching with a smile.  The caption reads “no more Hun for us!”

Photo 4 SDN April 28 1918 sports pg 10 - Jun 8 2018 - 10-22 AM - p1 (002)

The promotion of American ideals was also a huge part of the propaganda machine during WWI. Governor Cox travelled throughout Ohio speaking about the war.  He came to Springfield on numerous occasions, and beginning on May 22, 1918, the Springfield Daily News published ads and articles about his talks on Americanism.

Photo 5 SDN May 22, 1918 pg 4

Governor Cox vowed that “Treason will be stamped out.”  He gave a talk that he expected each naturalized citizen to prove its loyalty to Ohio and America by fighting under the flag.  For some communities, such as the Mennonites who did not believe in fighting in war, it was near impossible to stick to their beliefs without appearing to be a traitor to America. For them, this article must have seemed almost threatening to their culture.

Photo 6 Treason will be stamped out like a snake

Anti-German hysteria had major consequences for the US, specifically the German Americans.  Springfield, as well as many other communities throughout the US had thriving immigrant populations.  These communities felt a deep connection to their heritage and enjoyed speaking, writing, attending church and clubs, and eating foods that helped to keep them in touch with their roots.  However, during WWI to be pro-German meant you were anti-American, and many people were forced to give up, or at least hide their truth for survival.

 

Clark County in the Great War: How Local Industry Supported the War

By Sherri Goudy

“War, huh, yeah – what is it good for, absolutely nothing…” Though the lyrics often get stuck in my head (thanks Jacki Chan), war has both positive and negative effects on our world.  The bad includes death, famine, destruction, displacement of people, spread of disease, and any number of social and psychological problems.  But, war can also create opportunity and change that can be evaluated as a positive outcome.

As we have discussed in previous posts, WWI created jobs, helped women become accepted in the workplace and military, and became a catalyst for the Civil Rights Movement.  These are clearly positive developments amidst the tragedy of war.  In this post, I want us to explore the local contribution to the war in Clark County, Ohio and some of the industries which saw an increase in demand during the Great War.

One of the most obvious contributions to the war was the increase in manufacturing of military necessities.  From tanks and planes to guns and ammunition, factories across the United States evolved their product lines to produce for the war.  In April 1918, the Springfield Daily News published this article and photo of the “First tank over here… to join forces over there.”

Photo 1 April 29 1918 pg 7 SDN - Apr 20 2018 - 10-19 AM - p1 (002)

In Springfield, this article from April 14, 1918 talks about the “Eleven Gun Boring Machines” made locally at the Springfield Machine Tool plant.

Photo 2 April 4 1918 of 14 SDN - Apr 20 2018 - 10-09 AM - p1 (002)

An industry that some may not consider when thinking about the war effort is the production of musical instruments.  The Rudolph Wurlitzer Company located at 20 S Fountain Street in Springfield prided itself on manufacturing bugles, fifes, and drums.  This ad proudly states “Our Boys in France are Using the Wurlitzer Bugle, Fife and Drum. For over 55 years our bugles have been used in the United States Army and Navy. Today our boys in France and thousands of home guards in our own country are responding to the call of the Wurlitzer bugle.”

Photo 3 April 21 1918 pg 4 SDN - Apr 20 2018 - 10-12 AM - p1 (002)

The rise of the housing market was also a huge industrial advancement because of the war.  In Springfield, there was expected to be a boom in prosperity as a result of the diverse industries and postwar prosperity.

Photo 4 May 5 1918 pg 7 SDN - Apr 20 2018 - 10-28 AM - p1 (002)

In my last post, we discussed Liberty Bonds and how each local citizen could support the war and contribute by lending a portion of their income to the Government.  This Real Estate ad from April 20, 1918 starts off by telling the reader that their first obligation is to “Stand by the Flag – Buy Liberty Bonds.”  Their second obligation is “to plant a garden and raise food for your family” when you buy a parcel of land in Northern Heights.

Photo 5 May 5 1918 pg 19 SDN - Apr 20 2018 - 10-44 AM - p1 (002)

The industries that prospered during the war did in fact create opportunity for prosperity. Although World War 1 brought about huge negative effects and loss of life, there is no denying that industry boomed and the American economy was permanently transformed as a result.

What do you think? Please share your feedback by contributing your comments, and as always let us know what you want to read about next!

 

 

Liberty Loans and War Savings Stamps: How Every Clark County Citizen Could “Do Their Bit” During WWI

By Sherri Goudy

During WWI, the US Treasury Department headed by William Gibbs McAdoo spearheaded a campaign to enlist every American regardless of age, gender, or social status into the war effort.  The war was proving to be an expensive endeavor, estimated at a cost of $32 Billion.  As we’ve discussed in previous posts, the US had already shown their patriotism in conserving valuable resources in short supply and much demand.  So, if a nation was already barely making ends meet, how do its citizens contribute $21.5 Billion to the war effort?  The answer = war bonds.

In 1917, the plan to pay for the ever-increasing bill for the war was through a mix of taxation and borrowing from the American people.  Though some prominent economists said the war should have been completely financed through taxation, McAdoo was not on board with this plan mainly because there was no way to know how much the war would cost.  His plan was to create a “Liberty Loan” system in which the American people would be educated about bonds, how they would contribute to the war effort, and the importance of saving money.  He also wanted to appeal to patriotism through one of the most ambitious advertising campaigns ever conducted.  Lastly, his entire effort would rely on volunteer labor to avoid further debt.

The Liberty Loan campaign was first launched in April 1917, with 3 more campaigns in the fall of 1917, April 1918, and the last in October 1918. The first campaign promised a 3.5% rate of return, and the rate increased with each subsequent campaign. The loans were sold at various denominations, but the lowest was $50.

In order to make them accessible to families and even children who could not afford them at that cost, an installment plan was available.  People could buy War Thrift Stamps at a rate on 25 cents.

Photo 1 Feb 10 1918 pg 13

Also referred to as “little baby bonds,” after 16 were collected, they could be affixed to a special card and either redeemed after 1923 for $5.00, or exchanged for a War Savings Stamp, which was also worth $5.00.  Likewise, once 10 War Savings Stamps were collected, they could be exchanged for the $50 Liberty Bond.  This ad in the Springfield Daily News shows what the Thrift Cards looked like.

Photo 2 Jan 3 1918 pg 7

Each of the campaigns as well as Thrift Stamp drives relied on various ways to advertise.  Billboards, propaganda posters, and newspaper ads were the most common.  The following series of ads from the Springfield Daily News use a variety of methods to appeal to the people of Clark County to contribute by purchasing Stamps or Bonds.

This ad states that everyone in Clark County should buy either bonds or savings stamps, and the image depicts that while “Liberty Loans” were the “big guns” of the campaign, thrift stamps are just as important and can even be thought of as the foundation of the effort.

Photo 3 April 21 1918 pg 7

This ad from January 8, 1918 states “United We Stand, Divided We Fall” and declares that “If we are to win the war, WE MUST WIN IT AS A UNITED PEOPLE… WAR SAVERS ARE LIFE SAVERS.”

Photo 4 Jan 8 1918 pg 4

In February 1918, this ad was published: “An Idle Dollar is a Slacker Dollar, but a Dollar Wasted in War Times is a Traitor Dollar.” Slackers referred mainly to draft dodgers.

Photo 5 Feb 26 1918 pg 8

In March 1918, the story broke of a Springfield boy, Hiram Taylor, who was killed overseas. This is just one of a few different ads which demanded that Clark County “prove their patriotism” and not let Taylor’s death have been in vain.

Photo 6 March 4 1918 pg 7

“Wise Patriotism” was the headline for this April 1918 ad which stated that “without patriotism life is an empty meaningless waste.”

Photo 7 April 12 1918 pg 13

Fear of losing the war and the death and destruction at the hands of the enemy on American soil were the tactics used in this ad from April 1918.  The ad says, “if America and her allies fail it is just as certain as day follows night that America will be invaded and her homes laid in ruins.”

Photo 8 April 8 1918 pg 7

Mothers were making sacrifices by “giving their sons” to the war, so the least the rest of us can do is “lend our money.”

Photo 9 April 10 1918 pg 15

Appealing to the anniversary of entering the war, this ad appeals to those who should commemorate America’s entry “to uphold civilization and to make the world safe for democracy.”

Photo 10 April 6 1918 pg 5

This ad appeals to the religious majority in Clark County, to go to church and “pray for victory” then “but at least one $50 Liberty Bond.”

Photo 11 April 20 1918 pg 2

This ad makes its appeal to the immigrant communities in Clark county by urging them to “invest your money in liberty bonds” and are absolutely a “safe” investment “because they are guaranteed by the richest nation in the world.”

Photo 12 April 14 1918 pg 11 (2)

The Us wasn’t the only nation in the war using war bonds to finance their efforts.  This ad from April 22, 1918 gives the results of the German campaign and asks its citizens “Are you as patriotic as the Germans? Are you worthy of liberty? Buy Liberty Bonds – They are the price of Freedom.”

Photo 13 April 22 1918 pg 5

The use of political cartoons were also popular ways to encourage Springfield Citizens to do their bit.  This cartoon printed in the Springfield Daily News April 8, 1918 says, “If you can’t fight, help a fighter fight – Buy Liberty Bonds.”

Photo 14 April 8 1918 pg 6

The campaigns also relied on children to sell and buy savings stamps, using the boy scouts, ads geared specifically towards kids, and even a contest for a local child to see their picture in the paper and come to the newspaper office to receive a prize of 4 thrift stamps.

Photo 15 Feb 13 19189 pg 10

Photo 16 April 28 1918 Sports pg 14

Women of Springfield contributed greatly to fundraising and war bond efforts.  This list of signatures includes 50 women who contributed funds to the Clark County War Savings Committee was published in the Springfield Daily News with the headline “Women of Clark County Have Again Shown their Patriotism by Financing War Saving Campaign.”

Photo 17 April 28 1918 pg 2

This ad published on the last day of the 3rd Liberty Loan Campaign urges everyone to buy a war bond, with the assistance of an installment plan that even “President Wilson is Using.”

Photo 18 May 4 1918 pg 5 (2)

In total, the US government would borrow $17 Billion ($275 Billion in 2017 dollars) from all 4 of the Liberty Loan drives, and another $8.8 Billion in taxes.  Over 20 million individuals had bought war bonds, which was impressive considering that the US only had about 24 million households at the time.

Let us know what you think about this post in the comments below!  We want to know what you want to read about next, so send us your ideas for our next blog post about Clark County during the Great War.

 

The Coal Shortage and WWI: How Clark County Fueled the War and its Homes in the Winter of 1918

By Sherri Goudy

As we in Ohio are experiencing a more severe winter than in recent years as well as government policy as it relates to energy and coal, it is easy to imagine these same conditions 100 years ago. The winter of 1917-1918 was severe, with blizzard conditions and extreme cold hitting Ohio and other parts of the US.  Homes, schools, businesses, and industries producing goods for war required coal for heat and energy, but a coal shortage made this resource a scarcity.  There was plenty of coal being mined, in fact Ohio saw its greatest level of coal mining during 1918, but railroads and ships carrying this resource were backed up dues to poor regulations, traffic jams in the railyards on the east coast, and frozen waterways. This was the beginning of a major crisis for the United States.

To combat these issues, 2 government administrations were formed.  In order to deal with the problems of the coal shortage, the Fuel Administration was created and headed by Harry Garfield, son of President James Garfield.   Since transporting these commodities was a significant part of the crisis, it was decided that the US should nationalize the railroad and control the railways. The Railroad Administration was created and led by the Secretary of the Treasury, William Gibbs McAdoo, who also happened to be President Wilson’s son-in-law. The goal of this administration was to clear up the congestion of the railway networks and get war goods and coal moving across the nation again.

Clark County experienced this crisis as hard as any city in America.  Headlines throughout the first few weeks of the new year were filled with news about the coal shortage, especially its impact on the schools.   This headline from January 1, 1918 read “Public Schools Will Not Open – Coal Does Not Arrive and Sessions Will Not Be Resumed.”

Photo 1 Jan 1 1918 pg 2

On that same date, another headline informed readers that the railroads were working diligently to free up the congested lines, but that passengers would have to forego their planned schedules to prioritize transportation of coal and other exported freight.

Photo 2 Jan 1 1918 pg 2

The lack of coal in Springfield, the surplus of coal in the northwest, and the congestion of the railways to transport it to places like Ohio gave way to heated debates and a general unpopular feeling towards the Fuel Administration.  Back to back days in the Springfield Daily News, articles were published blaming Garfield for the shortage.

Photo 3 Jan 9 1918 front

Even Ohio Governor James Cox was playing the blame game, arguing the delay in troop movement and supplies for American troops in France was because of Garfield’s inability to lead.  But in that same article, McAdoo and the Railroad Administration were hailed as heroes to “attend to” the situation and “keep [Garfield] out of the coal business.”

Photo 4 Jan 4 1918 front

Photo 5 Jan 4 1918 pg 3 cont from front

With McAdoo handling the railway situation, Garfield turned his attention to maximizing the coal already on hand.  The first plan was to close factories east of the Mississippi for certain periods, especially those industries not deemed “necessary.” Although during wartime, munitions factories and other facilities were closed for a period of 5 days in January 1918.  Only factories producing food and those requiring continuous operation were exempt from the order.

Photo 6 Jan 17 1918 front

At the same time, passenger trains continued to be annulled, including those in Columbus and Dayton, to make way for coal and other needed supplies in this part of the country.

Photo 7 Jan 10 1918 pg 16

The “coal famine” was taking its toll for both home life and with the war effort, but Garfield’s plan for closing factories was extremely unpopular. This political cartoon published in the Springfield Daily News on January 19, 1918 speaks for itself; the “Grim Dictator” called “Necessity” required a 5-day shut down in order to fill the empty coal bucket.

Photo 8 Jan 19 1918 pg 4

Yet another image on the front page of the Springfield paper showed Garfield seated and signing an order, while a crowd of “out-of-work” industrial laborers stand outside of a building.  Below, is another image of soldiers in France.  The headline read “This Man Throws These Workers Out of Work to Aid These Soldiers.” While the American people did support the war effort and wanted to ensure troops had the supplies they needed, citizens did not favor the sacrifice of being out of work.

Photo 9 Jan 20 1918 front

The opposition to the factory shutdowns was quickly replaced with a new plan that prioritize how the coal would be delivered from the west to the homes, factories, and waiting barges in New York Harbor to haul freight to the allies fighting in Europe.

Photo 10 Jan 15 1918 front

As mid-January approached and yet another cold front loomed, local industries went back to work and national “heatless Monday” was observed.

Photo 11 Jan 21 1918 front

Springfield, and the rest of the nation, continued to feel the stress of the coal shortage.  Garfield began to advocate for Daylight Savings Time, which would reduce energy consumption by scheduling more activities while the sun was shining.

Photo 12 Jan 11 1918 pg 7

DST was already in effect in Europe when the US finally passed legislation in March 18, 1918.  The next month, on April 1, the clocks would be set forward until October.

Photo 13 March 19 1918 front

This was the first of several times DST (also called “war time”) would be enacted.  It was unpopular and after the end of WWI it was repealed, then reinstated for WWII and then again in the 1960s, and finally the 1980s.  It has a long, confusing, and inconsistent history, being changed most recently in 2007.

Springfield and the nation survived the coal shortage, and although it was a critically harsh time in our nation’s history, development of railroad regulations and energy savings initiatives began out of this crisis.

Please let us know what you think!  Share your thoughts and ideas for upcoming blogs as we continue to explore Clark County during the Great War.

 

 

 

 

 

Building the American Army in World War I: Clark County Soldiers go to Boot Camp

By Sherri Goudy

America declared war on April 6, 1917 but the government and its citizens were completely unprepared for the mass army that would be required.  As of that date, there were about 300,000 soldiers comprising the US Army and National Guard.  President Wilson directed Congress to provide $3 billion (equal to over $62 billion today) to build a million-man Army.  Despite the desperation of the French and British to incorporate American soldiers into their own units, Wilson and the American government decided that this Army would be an independent fighting force, trained on American soil.

In order to make this happen, the 3 million American men who were drafted into service would need barracks and training facilities to accommodate them.  To function, the camps needed roads, railroad spurs, swage, barracks, mess halls, headquarters buildings, and hospitals.  These camps and cantonments were built in record times and 32 of them were located across the US to house and train hundreds of thousands of men to go to the battlefront.

In Clark County, most of the men who were drafted went to Camp Sherman in Chillicothe, Ohio.  It was the third largest training cantonment in the country.  In a matter of only a few months in the summer of 1917, over 2,000 buildings were erected.  This article from September 1919 boasted that Camp Sherman was “a modern city [built] in record breaking time.”

Photo 1 Sept 9 1917 front

As the first active and reserve members of the Ohio National Guard prepared to depart for Camp Sherman, the entire city came together for a farewell reception at Memorial Hall.

Photo 2 Sept 5, 1917 pg 1

Photo 3 Sept 6, 1917 pg 8

The headline on the date of their declared “Springfield’s Army of Freedom Sends Word to the Whole World: ‘We Are Coming!’”

Photo 4 Sept 6, 1917 pg 1 part 1

For soldiers and their families at home, keeping up with daily happenings was critical.  Journalists, including Sergeant J. George Teichmoeller serving at Camp Sherman, would write “About Our Boys in Camp” to keep everyone informed, whether about new officers, tear gas training, or recreation and morale.

Photo 5 Dec 12, 1917 2nd pg 2

Photo 6 Dec 9, 1917 pg 10

The stress and psychological toll of being away from home and the impending threat of trench warfare were concerns for the leaders at Camp Sherman.  This article published only a week after the first soldiers were sent to train states “there is an order to officers to be lenient with the embryo soldiers. Let them go home now and then and they won’t be homesick and depressed and disappointed and discontented…”

Photo 7 Sept 13, 1917 pg 7

As the holidays approached, providing entertainment and leisure for the soldiers became a priority.  Soldiers were permitted leave for Thanksgiving, and 10,000 men from Ohio and Pennsylvania went home for the holiday.

Photo 8 Nov 25, 1917 pg 12

For those men too far from home to leave, this article from December 2, 1917 described Thanksgiving at Camp Sherman.  The Gala event included dinner with all the fixings: “two hundred and twenty-three pounds of roast turkey, chestnut dressing containing two-gallons of oysters, thirty-two pounds of cranberries…, eighty pounds of mashed potatoes…, forty-five pumpkin pies…, and as a climax, six hundred cigarettes were passed around.”  The men were also treated to the theater and a trip to Columbus to see their Camp Sherman football team play against Ohio State in a special Military Carnival benefit game.

Photo 9 Dec 12, 1917 2nd pg 2

As Christmas approached, the ads and articles in the Springfield newspaper shifted to sending packages to the troops.  This cartoon states “Remember the Soldiers: Be Santa Claus to Them.”

Photo 10 Dec 11, 1917 pg 7

Political cartoons urged citizens to send socks, sweaters, and comforts to “your boy or your neighbor’s boy” and an ad for Pillsbury declared that “Our boys can win” by conserving food and purchasing alternative flours.

Photo 11 Dec 21, 1917 front

 

Photo 12 Dec 23, 1917 pg 16Two days before Christmas, the Springfield News Sun published this article about the changes in society the holiday season of 1917 versus previous years.  Instead of the hustle and bustle of shoppers purchasing gifts for family and lunchrooms filled with shoppers taking a break from their activities, the shopping centered around relief purchases and the lunchrooms were filled with Red Cross volunteers knitting garments for soldiers at camp and overseas.  The same red and green sparkly decorations covered downtown shops and street corners, but not with the same feel as in years past. The newspaper reads “The evening lights are not quite so bright and in place of the usual Christmas greeting, the universal question is ‘How many will be absent from your Christmas table?’” Society had modified their entertainments, and the expectation was that many families would travel to camps and cantonment towns “to be with their boys as long as possible before they are called to France.”

Photo 13 Dec 23, 1917 Scoiety front

We hope you have enjoyed our blog to enhance the Clark County WWI Anniversary Exhibit experience.  Please let us know what you think.  We will be taking a short break for the holidays, but in January 2018 we will once again be your source for chronological blogs to follow the involvement of Clark County in the Great War in 1918.